National Geographic Article:

Newsweek Story:

Local News Story:

History of the Altamaha:

Altamaha Legend of Georgia:

Edgar G.J., Russ G.R, Babcock R.C. (2007). Marine protected areas.  In S.D. Connell and B.M. Gillanders (Eds), Marine Ecology (pp. 534-565), Oxford, UK:  Oxford University Press.

Edgar, et al. (2014). Global conservation outcomes depend on marine protected areas with five key features.  Nature, 506, 216-220.

Executive Order 13158. Federal Register, 65 (105), May 31, 2016.

NOAA National Ocean Service. What is a marine protected area?  (2017).

NOAA National Ocean Service, Office of Ocean and Coastal Resources Management.  Definition & classification system for US marine protected areas. (2011)

Commonwealth of Australia, Department of Environment and Heritage.  (2003).  The benefit of marine protected areas. Agardy, et al.  (2003).  Dangerous targets?  Unresolved issues and ideological clashes around marine protected areas.  Aquatic Conservation:  Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 26(S2), 7-23. IUCN.  Marine mammal protected areas task force.  (2016). IUCN.  Strategic plan for biodiversity 2011-2020 and the Aichi Targets.  (2010).

Additional Resources:

MPA Science:

MPA Inventory:

NOAA Marine Mammal Viewing Guidelines and Regulations:

NOAA Marine Wildlife Viewing Guidelines:

AAMPA’s Guide to Responsible Wildlife Watching:

Watchable Wildlife Inc.

Georgia DNR North Atlantic Right Whale:

Marine Mammals Protection Act:

“Marine Mammals Feeding.” Discovery of Sound in the Sea, University of Rhode Island and Inner Space Center, 22 Nov. 2017,

Bobbitt, Andra M, and Sharon Nieukirk. “A Collection of Sounds from the Sea.” Ocean Explorer, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Organization, 18 Dec. 2017,

Hatch, L. T., Clark, C. W., Parijs, S. M., Frankel, A. S., & Ponirakis, D. W. (2012). Quantifying Loss of Acoustic Communication Space for Right Whales in and around a U.S. National Marine Sanctuary. Conservation Biology, 26(6), 983-994. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2012.01908.x

Nevala, Amy E. “The Sound of Sonar and the Fury about Whale Strandings.” Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 15 Feb. 2008,

Southall, B. L., Bowles, A. E., Ellison, W. T., Finneran, J. J., Gentry, R. L., Greene, C. R., . . . Tyack, P. L. (2007). Marine Mammal Noise-Exposure Criteria: Initial Scientific Recommendations. Aquatic Mammals, 33(4), 411-509. doi:10.1080/09524622.2008.9753846

Tyack, P. L. (2008). Implications for marine mammals of large-scale changes in the marine acoustic environment. Journal of Mammalogy, 89(3), 549-558. doi:10.1644/07-mamm-s-307r.1

Christiansen, Fredrik; Rojano-donate, Laia; Madsen, Peter; Bejder, Lars. “Noise Levels of Multi-rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles with Implications for Potential Underwater Impacts on Marine Mammals.” Frontiers in Marine Science. 26 December, 2016.:

Morbillivirus Infection in Dolphins, Porpoises, and Whales:

FAQs on Morbillivirus and the Atlantic UME: 2013-2015

Bottlenose Dolphin Unusual Mortality Event in the Mid-Atlantic: Worrisome trend for health of wild dolphins:

Health and Stranding of Marine Animals:


FDA Advisory:

NRDC Wallet Card:

Dolphin Mercury Article:

Basic Facts via Ocean Conservancy:

Basic Facts via National Geographic:

Basic Facts via NOAA: About the Marine Mammal Center:

About Ke Kai Ola:

News Story from Ke Kai Ola on Monk Seal Release:

Year of the Monk Seal:

Videos on Recovery Efforts: Species In The Spotlight: Hawaiian Monk Seal

Relevant Scientific Literature Watson, T. (2011). Culture, Conservation, and Conflict: Assessing the Human Dimensions of Hawaiian Monk Seal Recovery. Aquatic Mammals, 37(3), 386-396. Lowry, L.F et al. (2011). Recovery of the Hawaiian Monk Seal (Monachus schauinslandi): A Review of Conservation Efforts, 1972 to 2010, and Thoughts for the Future. Aquatic Mammals, 37(3), 397-419. Barbieri, M. et al (2016). Protozoal-related mortalities in endangered Hawaiian monk seals Neomonachus schauinslandi. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 121(2), 85-95. Schmelzer, I. (2000). Seals and seascapes: covariation in Hawaiian monk seal subpopulations and the oceanic landscape of the Hawaiian Archipelago. Journal of Biogeography, 27(4), 901-914.

Harting, A. L., Baker, J. D., & Johanos, T. C. (2017). Estimating population size for Hawaiian monk seals using haulout data. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 81(7), 1202-1209.